2. Project Management Concept (Konsep Management Proyek)

Pendahuluan

•Project management involves the planning, monitoring, and control of people, process, and events that occur during software development.
•Everyone manages, but the scope of each person’s management activities varies according their role in the project.
•Software needs to be managed because it is a complex undertaking(ush) with a long duration time.
•Managers must focus on the four P’s to be successful (people, product, process, and project).
•A project plan is a document that defines the four P’s in such a way as to ensure a cost effective, and high quality software product.
•The only way to be sure that a project plan worked correctly is by observing that a high quality product was delivered on time and under budget.

Management Spectrum

•People (recruiting, selection, performance management, training, compensation, career development, organization, work design, team/culture development)
•Product (product objectives, scope, alternative solutions, constraint tradeoffs)
•Process (framework activities populated with tasks, milestones, work products, and quality assurance points)
•Project (planning, monitoring, controlling)
People
•Players (senior managers, technical managers, practitioners, customer, end users)
•Team leadership model (motivation, organization, ideas/innovation)
•Characteristics of effective project managers (problem solving, managerial identity, achievement, influence and team building)
Software Team (Software Team Organizaton)

  Struktur tim “terbaik” tergantung pada gaya manajemen sebuah organisasi, jumlah orang yang akan ada dalam tim tersebut, tingkat ketrampilannya serta kesulitan masalah secara keseluruhan. Mantei mengusulkan 3 organisasi yang umum:

•Democratic decentralized (DD): (rotating task coordinator (tidak ada pemimpin yang permanen) and group consensus (keputusan thd masalah dan pendekatan yang dilakuakan dibuat oleh konsensus kelompok))àkomunikasi anggota tim bersifat horisontal

•Controlled decentralized (permanent leader, group problem solving, subgroup implementation of solutions)à komunikasi antar kelompok dan orang bersifat horizontal, namun komunikasi vertikal sepanjang hierarki kontrol juga terjadi disini
•Controlled centralized (top level problem solving and internal coordination managed by team leader)
Factors Affecting Team Organization
•Difficulty of problem to be solved
•Size of resulting problem
•Team lifetime
•Degree to which problem can be modularized
•Required quality and reliability(andal&dipercaya) of the system to be built
•Rigidity of the delivery date (kepastian tanggal penyampaian)
•Degree of communication required for the project
Coordination and Communication Issues (masalah koordinasi dan komunikasi): Kraul dan Streeter menguji sekumpulan teknik koordinasi proyek yang dikatergorikan dalam kelompok:
•Formal, impersonal approaches (e.g. documents, milestones, memos)
•Formal interpersonal approaches (e.g. review meetings:menyangkut pertemuan status pengkajian serta  perancangan, inspections)
•Informal interpersonal approaches (e.g. information meetings, problem solving)
•Electronic communication (e.g. e-mail, bulletin boards, video conferencing)
•Interpersonal network (e.g. informal discussion with people other than project team member)
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